BABOK core concepts model

Business Analysis Core concepts Model (BACCM)

Business Analysis Core concepts Model

Business Analysis Core concepts Model (BACCM) is the core framework integral to BABOK Guide v3. Core concepts are fundamental to the practice of business analysis as defined in BABOK guide. IIBA BABOK v3 is the new version of BABOK guide for latest version of business analyst certifications. In this article, I am going to discuss the basics of business analysis core concepts model (BACCM).

You can directly go to the end of this blog post to watch a video on BACCM model, if you would prefer to watch video rather than reading the text.

What is Business Analysis Core concepts Model (BACCM)?

The business analysis core concept model is a set of 6 concepts which define the business analysis practice as per IIBA BABOK v3. The six core concepts are as shown below:
Business Analysis core concepts model (BACCM)
Let’s try and understand each one of them with the help of an example.
If you are not familiar with BABOK guide, you can read introduction to BABOK guide for starters.

Core concept – Need

Need is defined by BABOK as:

A problem, opportunity or constraint with potential value to a stakeholder (s)

Need can be thought of as the reason which starts a project. The need arises from the current state of the organisation.

For example: An organisation is receiving a lot of complaints from customers about the after sales support provided. So, the organisation has a need to address the problem. 

An organisation is selling subscription software, where people subscribe to the software and pay on a monthly basis. In recent times, the drop out period and rates are very high. 60% of people stop paying after 1 month and 80% after 2 months. The organisation needs to address the problem and that’s an example of a need.

What is not Need: Need is not a solution. Solutions are ways to address the need. So, in our first example, if we say that the company wants to automate its after sales service process, it defines the solution and not the need.

Core concept – Solution

The BABOK guide refers to this core concept as:

A specific way of satisfying one or more needs in a context.

Organisational needs can be satisfied or addressed through one or more than one solution. A solution to address the need can be specific to an organisation as different organisations or situations may need different solutions.

For example: To address the need for resolving poor after-sales service, the organisation may use a software application. 

A need can be addressed in more than one way, which means that we can have more than one solution. 

In our case, the organisation can opt for a Software as a service (SaaS) CRM system, or a COTS (commercial off the shelf) CRM product or a completely custom-built software application.

So, how does a business analyst/Organisation decide which is the best solution? BA takes a decision based on multiple factors like cost, benefits, risks, etc.

Core Concept – Change

BABOK refers to this core concept as

The act of transformation in response to a need.

First, an organisation recognises the need. A need requires a solution. The organisation chooses the solution, which is the best fit.  

The organisation implements the solution (internally or through a vendor). During the implementation of the solution, changes take place within the organisation. The change includes team changes, process changes, and more.

For Example: In our example, the support team, at the least, needs to learn how to use the new software? Are they ready? If not, they need to be skilled appropriately.

Core Concept – Context

Context refers to the environment in which the solution needs to be implemented. It includes organisational background, structure, locations etc.

Context may also influence the decision to select a solution to address the need for an organisation.

For Example: In our example, Software as a service (SaaS) CRM option is suitable for Organisation A, it is possible that a custom-built software is more suitable for Organisation B. Organisation A is a small organisation with just 10 employees. 

Core Concept – Value

BABOK refers to “Value” as:

The worth, importance, or usefulness of something to a stakeholder within a context.

A need merits an investment (in a solution) only if it is valuable to address the need. The value can be tangible or intangible.

For Example: By implementing a CRM solution to address the after sales support issues, the organisation wants to keep the customers happy so that they can refer more customers.  This is what is meant by “Value”.

Core Concept – Stakeholder

Who is a stakeholder?

A group or individual with a relationship to the change, the need, or the solution.

A stakeholder is an individual or group who can influence the project or can get influenced by the project as a user. The stakeholders can be from the customer organisation, the solution provider or an external organisation.

BABOK guide has proposed specific categories of stakeholders but does not limit them to only these categories. The stakeholder’s categories as per BABOK are:

  • business analyst,
  • customer,
  • domain subject matter expert,
  • end user,
  • implementation subject matter expert,
  • operational support,
  • project manager,
  • regulator,
  • sponsor,
  • supplier, and
  • tester.

For Example: In our example, the stakeholders are support staff, Customer service managers and director. 

These core concepts are important part of BABOK guide and therefore also important for the IIBA Certifications preparation.

Read Also: introduction to BABOK Guide

Understanding BABOK thoroughly is the most important element of IIBA Certifications preparation.

In our training programs – CBAP Course, CCBA Course and ECBA Certification Training, we cover all the elements of BABOK in details with case studies and examples.

Abhishek Srivastava is a seasoned IT professional with diverse experience in Banking, Insurance, Utility and Education domains. Managing large accounts, Program management & Developing business solutions has been his forte.An NIT / IIM Kozhikode graduate, He founded Techcanvass ( in 2013. With Techcanvass, He is pursuing his dream of creating an organization imparting quality education to IT professionals. He believes that learning is a lifelong journey and one must never stop learning.He also loves writing and sharing his knowledge. Some of his notable books are ERP to E2RP, UML Modelling for Business Analysts, Business Analysts Practitioners Guide, Software Testing: A practical Approach. All these books are available on Amazon.


  1. I’m interested in becoming ECBA certified as well. Can you please provide me a quote through your EEP program? Much appreciated!

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